Strengths and Weaknesses of Waterfall Approach for Software Development

One of the most famous and widely used approaches for software development is the waterfall model. Waterfall approach is an old technique that has been in use for quite some time, but in modern times agile approach is gaining prominence.

Waterfall approach, as is evident from the name, refers to a systematic approach where one step comes after the other. It cannot go the other way round. The process works like the waterfall effect that flows in one direction, which is from up to down.

In this process the life cycle of the development process is predetermined. All the steps are defined before the start of the project. The approach is predictive, where the team is well aware of the order of each step and therefore works accordingly. It starts from the requirement analysis, the design phase and then proceeds on to the implementation, testing and the maintenance phases.

The waterfall approach can be quite beneficial for those who are quite clear on their requirements. A planned approach works for them because they want fixed processes and budget. Where fixed processes are beneficial, at the same time they can be inconvenient at times. In cases where the client is not clear on the requirements and finds in the middle of the project that he/she wants to change course, this approach can prove to be quite problematic.

Another point of the waterfall approach is that the requirement analysis and design of architectural structure can consume a lot of time. Extensive research is done initially as the next phases depend completely on the planning strategy. However, the good thing is that everything is thoroughly worked out and each aspect is studied beforehand. The developers in such cases know what is expected of them.

A waterfall approach works in a systematic order, with one step following the other and the testing phase comes in the end. If there are any big problems encountered in the testing phase, it means a long process to make the amends. The process can consume extra time and money.

We cannot conclude that one approach is better than the other, as every method would have its own strengths and weaknesses. The determination of success for each method depends on how it is being used and whether the approach suits the scope of work being undertaken. While one approach may be suitable for a particular project, it might become totally useless under different circumstances. For example, some believe that agile methods are not well suited for offshore development, as they require a closer contact and communication that is not possible in an offshore project.

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3 Main Causes of Kernel Errors

A kernel error is a failure in some code critical to Windows. If you have ever encountered a Blue Screen of Death (BSoD), then you have seen a kernel error. Windows is actually several layers of programs made to work together. You can think of Windows as if it were your body, with many pieces working together to make a whole, and, like your body, some parts of Windows are more important than others.

The kernel is the most important part of Windows. It includes critical programs to handle things like memory management and device drivers for the graphics card. These programs are like a body's heart and brain. If something in the kernel crashes, it will often cause all of Windows to crash.

Software Failures

Because there are a lot of programs in the kernel, there are many opportunities for bugs to appear. Although Microsoft does extensive testing to get rid of bugs, their testing facilities can not run through all the combinations that billions of computers use with Windows when some bugs get through.

However, many of the kernel failures are in device drivers written by companies that make hardware, not by Microsoft. Your graphics card, for example, probably uses a driver created by the video company. These companies often work with Microsoft to test their drivers, but having companies working together adds an additional layer of complexity.

Hardware Failures

A hardware failure can cause a kernel error. If your graphics card fails, it can send bad data to the graphics device driver, which then crashes, creating a kernel error. If your hard disk fails, it can corrupt files used by Windows and cause the programs that use those files to crash.

Registry Failures

Registry failures can cause kernel errors. The registry is a database of information that Windows uses to store information about programs. If the registry gets corrupt, the programs that use it can cause kernel errors.

Registry corruption can come from either software or hardware failures. Software corruption can come from a bug in one of the programs that writes information out to the registry. Or if you turn off your computer without doing a complete shutdown, the registry files may not get completely written to the disk. Hardware corruption can happen when the hard disk fails causing parts of the registry files to be lost. It's a good idea to do some research on kernel errors and other registry issues.

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How to Retrieve Deleted Text Messages & Not Go Crazy in the Process

It’s happened to all of us. We’ve deleted a text message only to realize a short while later that we either deleted the wrong message, or we need to retrieve information off one of the deleted text messages. We then frantically search out ways online how to retrieve deleted text messages hoping to find an easy solution. We pour through websites pulling our hair out because we can’t find an easy solution.

Ultimately we walk away dismayed because either we were not able to find any solutions on how to retrieve deleted text messages, or the solutions we found seemed to require so much “detective” work, that the solution itself should be on a an episode of CSI.

Are there really any “easy” ways to retrieve deleted messages?

The good news is that YES, there are a couple options that do exist which enable anyone to easily recover deleted texts, and both are not only very affordable, but both work exactly as advertised.

Before we dig into the solutions, there is one solution that is often discussed, which does not work, although many people do still talk about it.

What does NOT work?

Going to your own phone carrier is not going to be a viable option. Yes, they are required by law to keep records of your communication (SMS, call, etc.), but they are not required to turn over their logs to you, unless requested by a court of law. You cannot call up AT&T, Verizon or Sprint and tell them you want to retrieve a deleted text message from last week because there is something really important within the contents of the message. It just wont work.

The only information AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, or any other cell phone carrier is going to provide you is the number, date, and time of a call or message. You can plead all you want, but they will not be able to do anything, so it’s not worth your time to attempt this approach.

What DOES work?

There are actually two options available for anyone who is looking for information on how to retrieve deleted text messages. These options rank from the “quick and easy” to the more difficult, but also the most effective.

1) Quick & easy method.

The ‘quick & easy method’ is to buy a SIM card reader, often referred to as a SIM card spy device. This device looks like a USB reader, and the way it works is you remove the SIM card out of your phone, and then place the SIM card into the SIM card reader, and then plug the reader into your computer. Using the included software (of the SIM card reader), you’ll be able to immediately retrieve and read deleted text messages. The time frame will vary, based on what new information is overwritten on the SIM card, but you’ll at least be able to retrieve and read the last 15-20 messages and scan through your call history and contacts, even if they were all deleted.

Positives of this approach?

  • Very easy.
  • Enables you to quickly recover deleted messages.
  • Does not require software to be installed prior to the message being deleted.

Negatives of this approach?

  • A bit costly.
  • Limited cell phone support.
  • Does not work on CDMA networks.

2) More difficult, but most effective method.

The more difficult, but most effective method’ is to purchase a cell phone monitoring app that is often used to spy on cheating spouses, monitor teen cell phone use, track cell phone location, and locate missing or stolen cell phones. These apps (often called spy apps or spy phone software) are often used by people who want an easy and convenient way to back up and store all their own personal cell phone data. The reason why this method is fast becoming a popular way to back up their own personal cell phone data is because everything happens automatically. There is no “syncing” required, or any buttons or settings to worry about. Your cell phone data (text messages, call history, etc.) are automatically backed up every single day. This means if you ever delete a text message, and then need to quickly recover it, all you have to do is log onto your account and then in just a few clicks, you’ll have full contents of every message that was either sent or received from your phone. In addition, you’ll get access to all your call logs and contacts.

The reason why this is a more difficult method, is because it requires that you download the software from your cell phone’s web browser and install the application on your phone. Not everyone is comfortable downloading cell phone apps from the internet using their phone’s web browser. However, once you do complete the download, the actual installation is similar to installing an app on your computer. If you are willing to roll the dice and go with this method, you’ll be very happy with the results. It’s essentially a real time person back up solution that requires absolutely ZERO work on your part. Everything is done for you. The only drawback with this approach is that it does require you to install the software BEFORE you delete the text message that you want to retrieve. This means you need to be proactive and install the software ahead of time.

Positives of this approach?

  • Extremely effective.
  • Affordable.
  • Full contents of text messages are retrieved.
  • Large amount of cell phones are supported, including the popular models such as Android, BlackBerry, iPhone, Nokia, and more.

Negatives of this approach?

  • Can be difficult if not familiar with installing cell phone apps.
  • Software must be installed prior to message being deleted.
  • Requires a data connection such as 3G or Edge
  • May increase data fees if a large amount of text messages are sent on a daily basis.

There you go. Now you know how to retrieve deleted text messages using a couple different approaches. The next time someone asks you how to retrieve deleted text messages, you’ll know what options exist, and which one is the best for that particular situation.

Good luck!

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Double Towel Racks – The Easy Way To Increase Space

Bathrooms almost always pose a storage challenge. They often have minimal space to do all the jobs we need to do in there and to store everything we use while we're in there.

When a bathroom is shared by a couple of people, or even an entire family, unique storage challenges come up, and they require unique solutions. When, say, four people use the same room for bathing, an obvious problem is: where do you put all the towels? Bathroom hardware manufacturers came up with a better solution: double towel racks.

A traditional single towel rack provides sufficient space to dry one towel. If you've got four people using four towels each day, and you have a typical bathroom, you'll need a wall covered with towel rods to provide enough drying space.

Double towel racks provide an innovation solution to this all-too-common bathroom storage problem. You'll find double towel racks come in traditional finishes like polished chrome and polished and antique brass, and popular finishes like brushed nickel and oil-rubbed bronze. You can find economic versions of double towel racks in unfinished wood and ceramic-and-plastic. Regardless of the amount the wall space you have available to install this hardware, you'll find one to fit your space; They come in the range of standard sizes.

If your bathroom is short on storage, you'll usually be open to considering any new space-saving solutions. You can find bathroom suites with a double towel racks installed below. Imagine-in the space where you could normally dry a towel or two, you can double your hanging space, and have room to store a few fresh folded towels and other bathroom essentials, too.

Double towel racks are an excellent solution when you've got lots of damp towels to handle, but other solutions do exist:

• Install a row of pegs or hooks along the wall of the bathroom.
• Install one or more multi-prong hooks on the back of the bathroom door.
• Buy a shower curtain rod with a towel rack incorporated in its design.
• When you purchase shower doors, look for ones where the handles double as towel bars.
• Install suction-cup hooks inside the tub surround.
• Place a swing-arm towel bar to the wall next to your tub or shower. This way, the towel bars extend into the room; They are not limited to hanging against a wall.
• Hang a hook over the bathroom door, linen closet door, or the door of the water closet. These over-door hooks come in single, double, and multiple hook versions in colors and finishes that either stand out or blend in.
• Repurpose an old-style coat rack and use it to hang towels in the bathroom. It takes up only a single square foot of precious floor space.
• If you want to add furniture to your bathroom, look for a hall tree, which is usually reserved for use in the foyer or a mudroom. They come in many styles and finishes, equipped with hooks, mirrors, storage benches, and shelves.
• If you've fortified enough to have a sizable linen closet in your bathroom, visit the closet organization section of your home improvement store. These stores have trained personnel who can help you look at the space you have and redesign it to suit your needs.

Installing a couple of double towel racks can provide a simple way to add storage space to your bathroom. But investigate all the possible storage options for your unique bathroom design challenges. You're not limited to one solution-think creatively and combine them to make a bathroom that works for you.

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How to Change the MPI Node Address For a Siemens S7-300 PLC

I have seven Siemens S7-300 PLCs connected together using the MPI (Multi Point Interface) interface. The Siemens MPI protocol is used by Siemens PLCs to communicate with external devices. I want to rename each of the seven PLCs. Here are the steps to accomplish that task.

First, connect your MPI cable to the first PLC. I will be connecting my laptop to each PLC individually. Power up the PLC and open Simatic Manager. The "New Project" Wizard window will open. Just click Cancel to close the window. Now click the Accessible Nodes icon on the toolbar. A window will open showing the identification of the PLC you are connected to. My window is showing MPI = 2 (directly). Make a note of this address and close the window.

Next we need to download a hardware configuration to the PLC. This is where we will rename the PLC node address. There are probably a couple of different ways to do this – following is how I accomplish this. All seven of my PLCs are the same model; Therefore, I am using the same hardware configuration. For the obvious reasons, I want to give each a different MPI node address. I have a project file that contains all seven of my PLC programs and one hardware configuration file. I open the one hardware configuration file, and then double click Hardware in the right hand window. This will open the HW Configuration window. In this window you should see your PLC with its MPI address given.

Remember when we clicked the Accessible Nodes icon and saw MPI = 2 (directly)? My Hardware Configuration Window is showing a MPI address of 7. Place your mouse cursor on the 7 and double click. Your CPU Properties window will open. It should open to the General tab. Look down and you will see Interface Type MPI with an address of 7. Click Properties and the MPI interface Properties window will open. Using the pull down menu, choose your MPI node address and make sure the MPI (1) 187.5kbps is highlighted and click OK. You are now back on the CPU Properties window where you will see your address has changed. Click OK and you will go back to the Hard Ware window where you can verify your MPI node address has changed.

You will now click the Save and Compile icon and then click the download icon. The Select Target Module window will open. Click OK and the Select Node Address window will open. Here you will see the MPI node address you assigned earlier. You will need to click the View button right below this. You will see the current node address appear, this should be the same as what you saw earlier when you clicked the Accessible Nodes icon. Simply click on this number and you will see it appear in the MPI address slot under the Enter connection to target station. Click OK and the Download to Module window will open. Click OK and the Stop Target Modules window will open. Click OK and the "Do you want to start the module?" Window will open. Click Yes.

Now go back to the SIMATIC Manager window and click the accessible nodes icon. You will see your new MPI node address. You can see this same article with pictures at http://www.morerobototics.com .

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How to Repair DBF Files by Using DBF Recovery Software

As a computer user you must have heard about a DBF file or some of you have used it. DBF is a database file format used by various database software programs, such as: Visual FoxPro, Clipper, dbFast, CodeBase, MultiBase, dbXL, Arago and similar database programs. A database file is a collection of data organized in a tabular form. A DBF file can be easily opened, edited and saved by any of these database programs therefore, this file format is very popular among computer users.

The most common use of a database file is to store a large amount of data and information. The file is widely used in almost every sector, such as: corporate and educational sectors to store the data and information. It has become an essential file format for an individual and an organization.

Where this file format is very useful for users on the other hand, it may create some serious problems as well. Sometimes a DBF file may become inaccessible or invalid due to corruption. DBF is not immune to corruption; in fact, this file format is prone to corruption due to its large size and complex file structure. It might be easily corrupted due to various reasons, such as: virus attacks, malfunction in database application, hard disk drive failure, software collision, unexpected cancellation of DBF, human errors and many more. These are some common reasons which can play an important role in database file corruption.

While opening a corrupt DBF file you may receive some error messages something like these:

  • “File .dbf does not exist”.
  • “The fields in table did not match the entries in the database”.
  • “Access to table disabled due to previous error”.
  • “Database file appears corrupt: Page is of wrong type.
  • “Corrupt table”/ “index header”.
  • “Filename .dbf has become corrupted”.

These are some common errors which frequently take place at the time of corruption. For example: you are working on your DBF file, everything is fine. But all of a sudden your database application (Visual FoxPro or other) starts hanging. You have no other option other than restarting the system. But when you restart your system and open the same DBF file, in which you were working earlier, it does not open or you get an error message saying the file is corrupted or damaged. This must be very frustrating situation for any user since all the hard work will go into the vain. All the data and information stored in the file might be lost forever. You have to re-create the file, which might not be possible in some cases.

In such critical state a BKF file will definitely help you. If you have backed up the database file (which is now corrupted), then you can easily restore it from the BKF file. But sometimes the BKF file may not be available or corrupted or invalid. In this situation you can use third-party DBF recovery software. This is one of the most efficient and effective solutions to fix corrupt DBF files. The DBF recovery software is designed to repair an extremely corrupted DBF file and to restore maximum data from it. It is highly capable to resolve or fix all the errors from corrupted DBF files. The software supports all popular database applications, such as: dBase III, dBase IV, dBase V, Visual FoxPro, Clipper, dBFast, CodeBase, MultiBase, dBXL and Arago. The best feature of the software is its self-describing user interface. It requires no technical knowledge or skills to use this software. Any tech savvy and a novice user can easily and comfortably use this software to repair corrupted DBF files. The DBF Recovery software is available with free demo version. Users can download the demo version before buying the full software. This helps users to examine the features and performance.

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What is the Purpose of ERP Software?

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software can be described as a complete business software solution. It is aimed at the integration of all business processes and sub-processes into a single unified system. This system is formulated and implemented in an organization to effectively and efficiently achieve the business goals of the organization.

ERP packages are implemented to manage the existing and prospective business plans and policies in an efficient manner under strict deadlines. It can be referred to as the ultimate business solution package that is predominantly concerned with making sure that the available resources of the organization are utilized in the best possible manner and coordinated with the business objectives of the organization.

It is crucial that modern day business organizations have a single unified system, which aims at harmonizing its business efforts. This can prove to be a crucial determinant in deciding the scope, area and net results of the organization as a whole, rather than running many different systems that don’t work well together. What makes ERP different from any other business solution package is the presence of a single and unified database system.

ERP software is as essential to the needs of a business today as food is for living. Businesses cannot run competitively in the absence of properly drafted and formulated ERP software. The more effective implementation and follow-up, the better are the results. ERP software is needed by all modern-day organizations, irrespective of the size, area of operations and business objectives.

Nowadays there are many ERP packages available in the global market, including SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, J D Edwards, and BAAN.

The selection of an ERP software package is dependent on many factors: previous software implementation, nature and size of operations, recommendations of consultants, and management decisions.

Before installing specialized software, a detailed study must be made and reviewed to match the business requirements with the available packages. This must be taken as a serious study as any mistake in selection or its effective implementation can prove disastrous to the organizational objectives and prospects. The ERP software must be installed by an ERP vendor or third-party consulting organization, which are expert service providers when it comes to providing Consulting, customization and support.

Some of the benefits of ERP Software:

* All processes and sub-processes are linked and unified into a single system.

* There are enhancements in the field of productivity, efficiency and achievement of business objectives.

* ERP tends to considerably reduce the response time by effectively transferring crucial information.

* ERP helps in streamlining the numerous functions performed by the organization as a whole.

* It helps the management to make vital decisions with unparalleled accuracy and in-depth study.

Thus, ERP software can effectively change the outlook of any business organization that exists in today’s cutthroat business world. Proper implementation of the ERP software is the key factor, which can benefit the growth prospects of any organization.

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Pick 3 Lotto Logix – What You Should Know

The primary goal of Lotto Logix is to present informational resources for many individuals who are interested in playing and winning in lottery. Lotto Logix locates and lists the best lottery websites having useful contents for players; determines the best possible methods and strategies for playing at the lowest cost; finding free lottery games and lists the vital factors a player needs for lottery software. If you want to learn about lottery games such as pick 3 Logix provides pertinent information, which may help you in terms of playing, betting, and winning.

Lotto Logix limits its lists of lottery websites into 1 or 2 links so that players can choose efficiently. The websites are grouped according to their functionality in terms of software, results, and information. More so, Lotto Logix provides information of every website including tips, news, articles, freeware, books, statistics, shareware, programs, software, predictions, wheeling systems, and wheels among others. Since Lotto Logix has the objective of winning the lottery, it also provides assistance for players who would want to do the same. It is undeniable that not everyone has answers or solutions to winning in the lottery. Thus, Lotto Logix hopes in bringing methods and strategies to fit into one tool that will effectively lead to lottery winnings.

Although some lottery players do not believe in the usefulness of lottery software for games such as pick 3 Logix believe that it can help in storing, tracking, and charting winning number combinations. Lottery software provides predictions that are useful in choosing numbers to bet. The software can provide 90% accuracy in terms of distribution of numbers as well as the winning numbers since it lets you import your wheeling system. You can wheel all the numbers in you Pick 3, 5, or 6 games as you are allowed to filter number combinations.

In terms of free lotto games, Lotto Logix locates and lists every free online lottery games with legit prizes and uses state drawings for the winning numbers. On the other hand, Lotto Logix does not list all the games specifically if the websites for such games advertise extremely. This is because Lotto Logix thinks that it is much better to separate them from other free online lottery games that do not advertise as much. As such, it plans on establishing a link-farm page specifically for games that employ pay-per-click advertising or those that employ sign-ups in order to cover for the page cost. However, Logix is not very enthusiastic in creating such additional page. This is because most of these kinds of sites have too much demand that seem outrageous or unbelievable for players.

If you want to improve your odds of winning in lottery games such as pick 3 Logix has determined that playing more tickets is the only efficient way. On the other hand, it has also determined that it is more possible for you to win lower tier prizes while waiting to with the grand prize. It is best to establish strategies that allow you to track specific events for possible winnings.

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Learn How to Fix “Runtime Error 53 File Not Found” Easily

Computer errors generally plague us a lot. They have to be removed immediately before they can cause any further problems. One such error is the run time error 53. It shows the message “runtime error 53 file not found”.

In this error, problem occurs when a software program that is installed on the PC shows this error because it is trying to reach a DLL file that has been removed from the windows registry. This registry contains all the files that are used by Windows for executing any kind of commands by human users. This DLL file might have never been installed on the computer itself.

To fix runtime error 53 from your system, some simple steps have to be followed. Such steps include clicking on the start menu and then landing at the control panel. After you reached the control panel, open the programs and features icon. Open up all the programs stored in the computer through it. Uninstall the program, which produced the run time error 53 message. A window will also open up telling the user that the program has been removed from the system.

To make sure that the DLL file is stored again on the computer, one has to remove the program and then put it back. The program can be reintroduced into the system through a hard disk or a CD. Instructions will appear on the screen as this program gets installed. After clicking on the install it now option, the user will see the option of terms and conditions on the screen. Click on the “I agree” choice to continue with the installation. The operating systems that generally display this error are Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7.

Run the program to ensure that runtime error 53 is not displayed again. If the error is still being produced, then contact the company, which supplied you with the software.

It is also intelligent on your part if you find out about the compatibility of your software with the operating system of your computer or other software. You can find out about this compatibility through an online research. The website of the software developer can also yield you such details. Tell the software developer about the intricacies of your system to get an adequate response from him about the runtime error 53.

However, the last and most easy solution to fix “runtime error 53 file not found” error is using windows registry cleaner software. Registry cleaner software can always eradicate any registry errors produced by wrong entries, which cause a runtime error 53. It can delete all the useless entries in the registry that are causing such an error. Using such software can ensure that you get an error-free system.

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Microsoft Access and Medical Private Practice

For physicians medical office software installation could be nerve-wracking, not because they want to avoid electronic medical records, but because the majority of the software packages are too complicated and very expensive for them.

The good news is, you can make your medical office software system uncomplicated and relatively easily maintained with one of the popular database software packages being used today, the Microsoft Access.

Microsoft Access is a relational database system developed by Microsoft. Microsoft Access is one of the easiest and most flexible database management solutions for the medical office and provides data validation and user-friendly features on data entry screens. It has been the dominant lightweight database system used for the last decade and has continued to grow with additional features. Access is a productive and very customizable solution for small medical practices and comes with MS Office (or standalone). However the next step up in a medical environment would be MS SQL Server but small medical offices usually only has need of a lightweight application and the added functionality with MS SQL Server, comes with a heavy price.

With this relational database system you can be up and running in one hour, which means that it is not necessary for your practice to spend lot of money to purchase, configure, update and maintain an SQL Server solution. Microsoft Access includes without any additional costs, points of integration with popular software packages including: Microsoft Word, Excel & Outlook and provides a free runtime version.

MS Access network setup is very easy. A medical office with 2-8 users is up and running within ten minutes, while installation and application maintenance is extremely simple. Virtually any user with a basic knowledge of Microsoft Access can handle all maintenance procedures without the assistance of IT personnel.

Keep also in mind that SQL Server is the flagship database system from Microsoft and it is suitable for use in environments with up to thousands of users. Microsoft Access can handle 2- 8 users and it is limited to 2 GB data storage.

We are convinced that the best way for private medical offices around the world to enter the world of electronic medical records is to purchase a professionally designed but inexpensive and affordable Microsoft Access based software solution.

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